Mayans, Aztecs and Incas
Civilizations that existed in America long before the arrival of Christopher Columbus 1492nd Mr. called pretkolumbovksim.
Notable among them, according to its richness and breadth of his knowledge, have developed in Central America and the Andes. Main empires empire Mayan Aztecs and Incas. In the XVI century and the civilization disappeared during the Spanish conquest. Customs and beliefs of those peoples who lived from farming, have a common character. They worship the main forces of nature such as sun, moon, rain and thunder. The priests were very powerful and have an important role because they have knowledge. Priests are known to mathematics, astronomy, astrology and medicine, and made a very accurate calendars. Led the ceremonies in the temples, which were rising in the city-states. All three people believed that the soul lives on after death and the dead to feel awe.
Pretkolumbovska oldest civilizations of the Maya civilization, from the III. to the tenth century BC. Their territory stretched at the beginning of a large part of Central America: the area around present-day Yucatan, Guatemala and Honduras.
The Maya were organized into independent city-states and not, as the Aztecs and Incas established a great empire. Their religion is little known. However, we know that the gods were numerous and Maja associated with all natural phenomena. Are shown as half-human half-animal, and were either good or evil. The main deity was hunab Ku, father of the gods; Itzamna, the king of heaven, the priest of the god who gave people a letter and calendar and its companion Ix Chel, goddess of the sea.
The Aztecs were the old nomads who came from the Mexican northwest. In XII. century are situated in the valley of Mexico where the XIV. century established their capital in what is now Mexico. Conquered the neighboring nations and established a great empire.
The main Aztec gods as Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, people who brought civilization, then Tezcatlipoca, the god of night, winter and death, the sun-god Huitzilopochtli, the war god, Tlaloc, the god of rain and thunder; Chicomecoatl, goddess of corn; Talzolteotl, goddess of love.
The Aztecs believed the gods created the universe, which is gradually being destroyed. To prevent the world again vanishes, and to the sun each morning was again, they believed that the gods required human blood sacrifice.
In XIII. century in South America to the highlands of Peru Incas conquered the people of neighboring nations and ruled the vast territory. At the beginning of XVI century the Inca Empire was a very well-organized state with the omnipotent ruler, called the Inca emperor, who was considered the son of the god-sun Intija and God himself. Deity of the Sun, Inti, therefore, had a central position in the official religion of the empire. He was dedicated to the feast Intiraymi.
A feast took place in June, which corresponds to the southern hemisphere winter solstice. Car and all the people waiting for the release of the new sun, and then I was in Incan temple, using concave mirrors, sun lit a new fire.
The crowning and death of rulers were also important ceremony, which contained offering of sacrificial gifts. Kult Intija was imposed on the conquered people. The Incas were attached great importance to the cult of ancestors.